Bamboo fiber is a regenerated cellulosic fiber produced from bamboo. The starchy pulp is produced from bamboo stems and leaves through a process of alkaline hydrolysis and multi-phase bleaching. Further chemical processes produce bamboo fiber.
Bamboo fibers are gaining more and more attention on the world market. Producers claim that their products are made from natural, ecological material of many exceptional properties characteristic for natural bamboo fibers.
Properties of Bamboo Fiber
Bamboo fiber is soft and comfortable against the skin, as it is naturally smooth and round even without any chemical treatment. Bamboo fiber has no sharp spurs to scratch against the skin, and people who are allergic to other natural fibers like wool or hemp will usually experience no allergic reactions from wearing clothing made of bamboo fibers.
Physical properties of bamboo fibers
|Dry tensile strength (cN/dtex)
|Wet tensile strength (cN/dtex)
|Dry elongation at break (%)
|Linear density (% deviation)
|Percentage length deviation
|Over-length staple fibers (%)
(Note: Test done at 20 °C and 65% RH).
Manufacturing Process of Bamboo Fiber
Bamboo Fiber is a kind of regenerated cellulose fiber; which is produced from raw materials of bamboo pulp. Firstly, bamboo pulp is refined from bamboo through a process of hydrolysis-alkalization and multi-phase bleaching. Then process Bamboo pulp into the bamboo fiber. The repeated test has proved that it has strong durability, stability, and tenacity. And the thinness and whiteness degree of bamboo fiber is similar to classic viscose.
Furthermore, it owns a high abrasion-proof capacity. Bamboo fiber spins nicely. This fiber is a natural cellulose fiber, can achieve natural degradation in the soil, and it won’t cause any pollution to the environment. Bamboo can be spun purely or blended with other materials such as cotton, hemp, silk, Lyocell (Tencel)), Modal cotton chemical fiber and so no.
After hi-tech disposal, bamboo fiber is thinner than hair. It has a round and smooth surface. Thus it has no stimulation against human skin.
Dyeing and Finishing of Bamboo Textile
Light serging, enzyme desizing and moderate bleaching and semi-mercerizing should be applied to the bamboo fabric during its dyeing and finishing process, which also avoid drastic condition and use small mechanical tension.
- Sergeing: Carried out in Moderate condition.
- Desizing: Should be consolidated, desizing rate should be over 80%.
- Scouring: Pure bamboo normally needs no scouring, sometimes wash it with a little alkaline soap. The scouring process should be made in terms of contents blended with cotton. When pure bamboo fabrics are under scouring, the alkali should not be over 10g/liter but be applied in accordance with the thickness of the fabrics.
- Bleaching: The processing should be made in terms of the specification and thickness of fabrics.
- Mercerizing: The fabrics are normally free of mercerizing due to their sound luster and bad anti-alkaline. However, some cases are found in order to increase their absorbance capacity to dyestuff.
- Dyeing: It is better to use active dyestuff during the dying process, and the alkali should not be over 20g/liter, the temperature should not over 100c. During the drying process, low temperature and light tension are applied.
The End-use of Bamboo Fiber
Bamboo fabrics are made by pure bamboo fiber yarns, which have excellent Wet Permeability, moisture vapor transmission property, soft hand, better drapery, easy dying, splendid colors. It is a newly founded, great prospective green fabric.
The following are some of the end-use of Bamboo fiber
- bathrobes and towels
- foot mats
- bamboo T-shirts
- The bamboo socks
Bamboo intimate apparels include sweaters, bath-suits, mats, blankets; towels have a comfortable hand, special luster and bright colors, good water absorbance. Bamboo fiber has such a sole function as anti-bacteria, which is suitable to make underwear, tight t-shirt, and socks. Its anti-ultraviolet nature is suitable to make summer clothing, especially for the protection of pregnant ladies and children from the hurt of ultraviolet radiation.
The Bamboo non-woven fabric
It is made of pure bamboo pulp, which has the same property as viscose fibers. However, bamboo has wide prospects in the field of hygiene materials such as a sanitary napkin, masks, mattress, and food-packing bags due to its anti-bacterial nature.
Bamboo sanitary materials include bandage; masks, surgical clothes, nurses’ wear, and so on. The bamboo fiber has natural effects of sterilization and bacteriostasis, therefore it has an incomparably wide foreground on the application in sanitary material such as sanitary tower, gauze mask, absorbent pads, food packing, and so on. In the medical scope, it can be processed into the products of bamboo fiber gauze, operating coat, and nurse dress, etc. Because of the natural antibiosis function of the bamboo fiber, the finished products need not be added with any artificial synthesized antimicrobial agent, so it won’t cause the skin allergy phenomena, and at the same time, it also has competitive prices in the market.
The Bamboo decorating series has the functions of antibiosis, bacteriostasis, and ultraviolet-proof. It is very advantageous for utilization in the decorating industry. Along with the bad deterioration of atmosphere pollution and the destruction of the ozonosphere, the ultraviolet radiation arrives at the ground more and more. Long time exposure to ultraviolet irradiation will cause skin cancer. But the wallpaper and curtains made from this fiber can absorb ultraviolet radiation in various wavelengths, thus lessen the harm to the human body farthest. What’s more, bamboo decorating products won’t go moldy due to the damp. Curtain, television cover, wallpaper, and sofa slipcover can all be made by bamboo fiber.
The merits of bamboo for use in textile fibers are their breathability, the ease of processing them into the fabric, their high functionality, and their beauty. The fashion world’s fascination with all things and bamboo is attracting the interest of a number of designers.
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